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Home  >  For Participants  >  Study Findings  >  Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma


  • A 2015 study found that while there was an association between having breast implants and risk of developing anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) for CTS participants, the occurrence of ALCL among study participants with breast implants was extremely rare.  Read more here.

  • CTS participants who were smokers had an elevated risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Participants who had never smoked but had been exposed to passive smoking (inhaling smoke from others’ tobacco products) also had an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  Read more here.

  • CTS participants who had at least one full-term pregnancy had a reduced risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) compared to woman who had never had children. Woman who were younger at their first full-term pregnancy also had a reduced risk of B-cell NHL and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.  Read more here.

doctors talking in a hospital
  • Using data from six different cohort studies, including the California Teachers Study, researchers looked at the relationship between body size and risk of certain non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. In this study, adult height was associated with increased risk of most subtypes, including the more common NHL subtypes DLBCL, CLL/SLL, FL. Adult height was also associated with increased risk of two rare subtypes: MCL and MF/SS. Body mass index (BMI) was also associated with risk of NHL subtype DLBCL.  Read more here.

  • The parental age at which CTS participants were conceived (i.e. how old a CTS participant’s mother and father where when she was conceived) was associated with that participant’s risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  Read more here.

  • A 2009 study found that taller CTS participants had a higher risk of B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Participants taller than 1.70 meters (approximately 5 ft. 7 in.) had a 50% greater risk for B-cell NHL than women who were 1.61 to 1.65 meters (approximately 5 ft. 3 in. - 5 ft. 5 in.).  Read more here.

  • A 2009 study found CTS participants who had a family history of haematopoietic malignancy (tumors of the blood) were at an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Among this population, risk varied significantly by the gender of the affected family member. CTS participants who had female relative with lymphoma had a 2.5-fold greater risk of B-cell NHL than participants who did not have any family history of malignancy, while participants who reported having a male relative with lymphoma were not at increased risk.  Read more here.

  • Researchers found that menopausal hormonal therapy was not associated with risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma among postmenopausal women. Bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy were associated with a greater risk of NHL among women who had not used menopausal hormonal therapy.  Read more here.

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