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DIET

  • When researchers examined the recent diets of CTS participants, they found that energy, fat, fiber, antioxidant vitamins, and phytoestrogens were not associated with participants’ risk of breast cancer. However, they did find that participants who drank an average of 20 or more grams of alcohol per day (approximately two or more glasses of wine) had an increased risk of breast cancer.  Read more here.
     

  • CTS participants who ate a plant-based diet (high in fruits and vegetables) had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The risk reduction was greatest for ER-PR- tumors.  Read more here.
     

  • In 2015, researchers examined five different dietary patterns among CTS participants:

    • ​"Plant-based”: high in fruits and vegetables

    • "High protein/high fat”: high in animal protein and added fats

    • "High carbohydrate": high in convenience foods, pasta, and bread

    • "Ethnic”: high in legumes, soy-based foods, rice, and dark leafy vegetables

    • "Salad and wine”: high in salad and low-fat dressing, fish, wine, and coffee/tea
      They found that participants' dietary patterns were not associated with their risk of developing endometrial cancer.
       
      Read more here.

       

  • A 2007 study found that CTS participants who consumed more than 3 mg a day of isoflavones—plant compounds that are capable of excreting estrogen-like effects—had a lower risk of ovarian cancer than participants who consumed less than 1 mg of total isoflavones a day.  Read more here.

  • By pooling data from 13 prospective studies, including data from the CTS, researchers found that consuming fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer.  Read more here.
     

  • Researchers pooled data from 14 prospective cohort studies to study the relationship between drinking coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks and risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Among these participants, drinking tea, coffee, or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk.  Read more here.

  • A 2002 study found several associations between vitamin supplement use and various demographic, dietary, and health-related factors. Supplement users were more likely to be older, Caucasian, and leaner (BMI <30). They were also more likely to use cancer screening tests, eat fruits and vegetables, exercise, and were less likely to be current smokers compared with non-vitamin users.  Read more here.
     

  • Phytoestrogens are plant compounds sharing a similar molecular structure with estrogen. Researchers examined the validity of food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in quantifying phytoestrogen consumption by administering 24-dietary recalls, a pre- and post- study FFQ, and then comparing it to participants’ 24-hour urine samples. They found FFQs to be accurate in detecting isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogens, in non-Asian populations.  Read more here.
     

  • A 2007 study found that drinking 8 oz. or more of coffee or tea per day was associated with a modestly decreased risk of renal cancer.  Read more here.
     

  • A 2007 assessment found that a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the CTS was valid and reproducible. Nutrient data had a reproducibility range of 0.60 to 0.87, and validity correlations were reasonably high (range: 0.55-0.85), with a few exceptions.  Read more here.
     

  • A 2008 study found no association between intake of fat and protein and increased risk of renal cancer. This includes their sub-types: red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood.  Read more here.
     

  • A 2012 study concerning intake of carotenoids α-Carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin revealed that increased consumption of these pigments was associated with a lower risk of ER-negative breast cancer, though not ER-positive breast cancer. It is unclear whether the carotenoids themselves lend to the effect or if other components in the same food sources do.  Read more here.
     

  • Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, and Urinary Cd 9 (U-cd) concentration has been considered a sign of long term exposure. Comparison of urine samples with environmental data collected about CTS participants regarding their diet, surroundings, and habits, revealed that a single measurement of U-Cd in a 24-hour sample did not accurately reflect medium to long-term effect on the body.  Read more here.
     

  • A 2013 study found no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer. However, increased vegetable consumption was correlated with lower risk of ER-negative breast cancer.  Read more here.
     

  • Researchers examined the relationship between 4 different diet indexes (Alternate Mediterranean Diet, Alternative Eating Index 2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Paleolithic index) and breast cancer risk. Diet quality indexes that emphasized intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and nuts and seeds and de-emphasize red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages were modestly associated with a lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. None of the diets evaluated were associated with a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and the PALEO score had no association with cancer risk regardless of menopausal status.  Read more here.

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