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Home  >  For Participants  >  Study Findings  >  Cardiovascular Disease


  • Prior research has shown that diet and physical activity levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morality. This 2022 study focused on the relationship between these risk factors and CVD mortality among female cancer survivors. Using data from the California Teachers Study, researchers evaluated whether diet (as characterized by the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Index) and physical activity before cancer diagnosis were associated with risk of death from CVD later in life. The researcher team did not find an association with diet and CVD mortality among cancer survivors. They did find that physical activity was inversely associated with risk of death from CVD.  Read more here.

  • Previous research has shown that using postmenopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of having a stroke. This project evaluated whether physical activity levels that meet the American Health Association’s recommendations for leisure time physical activity—more than 150 min/week of moderate activity or more than 75 min/week of strenuous activity—reduced the risk of stroke among hormone therapy users. This study found that CTS participants who used hormone therapy and met the AHA’s recommendations for leisure time physical activity did not have an elevated risk of stroke.  Read more here.

Vasculature of the Heart
  • Prior research has shown that women who had a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study examined whether women who had a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy also had higher rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for cardiovascular issues. The researchers found that within the California Teachers Study, women who had hypertension during pregnancy had more cardiovascular disease−related emergency department visits and hospitalizations than women who did not have hypertension during pregnancy. Read more here.

  • This 2020 study evaluated the relationship between sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption (consumption of caloric soft drinks, sweetened bottled waters or teas, and fruit drinks) and risk of cardiovascular disease. Consuming more than 1 serving per day of SSB was associated with cardiovascular disease, revascularization, and stroke.  Read more here.

  • Women with prior history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) were found to have an increased risk of stroke over long term, particularly after 60 years of age, although this risk was reduced overall in women with aspirin use. The same effect was not observed with statins use.  Read more here.

  • This 2017 study evaluated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and risk of stroke. Researchers found that participating in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at AHA recommendations (moderate intensity for more than 50 minutes/week; strenuous intensity for more than 75 minutes/week) decreased the risk of ischemic stroke for participants who met these requirements at both baseline questioning (1995-1996) and ten-year follow up (2005-2006).  Read more here.

  • Researchers investigated the effects of surgical menopause through bilateral oophorectomy (removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes). Having the operation did not increase all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality. Read more here.

  • This 2011 study found that among women in the California Teachers Study, menopausal hormone therapy (HT) was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality – but only among younger users. The reduced risk was not apparent for postmenopausal women. Read more here.

  • Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm and PM with a diameter of ≤10 μm was associated with higher risk of ischemic heart disease mortality and stroke. Exposure to nitrogen oxides also found in air pollution was associated with increased all cardiovascular diseases mortality. Read more here.

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